Corona virus appears to choose and select its victims. Since the beginning of the epidemic, reports and studies indicate that men are more vulnerable to complications from this virus and also more likely to be infected with it, and reports of countries of the world indicate that the death rate of corona is much higher for men than for women, so what is the reason for selecting a virus Sk male victims?
Research has confirmed that women’s mast cells are able to initiate a more active immune response, which may help them fight infectious diseases better than men, according to the website. everydayhealth“.
Analysis showed to patients COVID-19 During the first months of the disease outbreak in Wuhan, China, men accounted for nearly 60% of patients and patients with corona, according to a review published online in March 2020 in the Journal of Virology Medicine.
But a new research was published in April in Frontiers in Public Health He paints a different picture and says that relatively equal numbers of women and men catch the virus, but it appears to hit men more, resulting in twice as many deaths.
While experts are still exploring the causes, several theories have emerged that explain the cause of the virus to men more than women.
Men have more complications from corona than women
1- Estrogen may help enhance the immune response
Louis Ostroski-Zessner, professor of medicine and infectious disease specialist at McGovern University School of Medicine, said the idea of sex differences in how the immune system responds to disease and infection is not a new idea.
Most experts attributed the relatively high number of deaths COVID-19 Men have behavior and lifestyle, but it appears that the female hormone estrogen may help women fight the virus.
It is distributed Estrogen Widely used in the female body, including cells that play key roles in combating pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses.
The estrogen density helps immune cells enhance the body’s first line of defense against threats (called innate immunity), even when blood circulation hormone levels decrease or decrease – for example, throughout and after menopause.
Estrogen also boosts the body’s adaptive immunity, according to a review published in October 2016 in a magazine Nature Reviews: Immunology; This second line of defense scans any remaining invaders and then builds copies of these immune cells to prevent future attacks with the same pathogens.
2- The X chromosome may help fight the virus
“We know that many of the severe symptoms that occur with coronavirus have to do with the response of the immune system to this virus,” said Amish Adalja, senior researcher and expert at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Health Security.
He added: “Besides the influence of hormones, genetic differences between men and women affect the way their immune systems interact with pathogens.”
Researchers have noted this with other infectious diseases such as influenza, in which men also tend to experience more severe complications.
Specifically for the new coronavirus, research has investigated the role of sexual chromosomes (cells DNA That determine the hereditary gender for a male or female)
Men have chromosomes XY While women have a chromosome XXIt indicates the presence of two chromosomes X To help women fight the coronavirus and also prevent symptoms COVID-19 Severe.
3- A specific enzyme found in men in abundance
Another major hypothesis focuses on how the coronavirus attaches to human respiratory cells.
According to a study published in April 2020 in MedRxiv , Men have higher levels of cell protein called ACE-2 (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2); This protein is used by the coronavirus to enter the nasal passages, and ultimately, the cells in the lungs and throughout the respiratory system.
Researchers believe that abundance ACE-2 It may prevent men from removing COVID-19 Of their systems, and may increase the risk of death.
Requested men with COVID-19 More time for women to eliminate the virus from their lungs and respiratory system, according to a Chinese study published in April 2020 in the British Medical Journal.
It may also house men ACE-2 In their testes, which further delays recovery and very little has been found ACE-2 In female ovarian tissue.
4- Lifestyle and chronic diseases
Additional factors can affect a person’s immune response severely COVID-19 – And differences in men’s and women’s responses to coronavirus infection – are also believed to be affected by existing medical conditions such as coexistence of diabetes, hypertension, and lung disease.
Lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity, diet and lack of physical activity may also play a role.
It is worth noting that underlying health problems are confirmed as more serious primary drivers.
Until now, scientists have not known the main reason why the Corona virus affects men more than women, and these are just theories, but research continues on the interaction between sex, genetics, hormones and lifestyle.