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Elaf from Beirut: Cancer is a medical term that includes a wide range of diseases characterized by the abnormal growth of cells that divide without control and have the ability to penetrate tissue and destroy healthy tissues in the body, and it is able to spread throughout the body.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world, but the odds of a cure are constantly improving in most types, thanks to advances in early cancer detection methods and cancer treatment options.
Before the first cancer gene mutations were discovered in the early 1980s, the 1970s provided the first data indicating changes in the genetic material of tumors.
In this context, the famous “Nature” magazine published in 1975 research indicating one of the changes, namely the loss of the RNA responsible for carrying an amino acid to build proteins for a segment, the “nucleotide” Y “.
After this remarkable observation, for 45 years there were almost no developments in the causes and consequences of not having the correct base in RNA.
In a study published in the latest issue of the journal “PNAS” by a research team headed by Dr. Manel Esteller, director of the “Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute” in Spain, the cause of the changes in human body cells associated with the emergence of cancerous tumors was revealed, by noting that it is in cancer cells , The protein that generates the “Y” nucleotide is inactivated, causing small but highly aggressive tumors.
“Since the original discovery in 1975, there has been a lot of biochemical work to characterize the enzymes involved in the different steps that lead to the” Y “nucleotide, the head of the research team said in a report published on the institute’s website on August 12.
He added, “And recently we succeeded in concluding that epigenetic silencing of the (TYW2) gene is the cause of the loss of the (Y) nucleotide.”
“The epigenetic blockade of the TYW2 gene occurs mainly in colon, stomach and uterine cancer, and it has undesirable consequences for healthy cells, as the postman (RNA) that sends the signal to produce the building blocks of the body (proteins) begins to accumulate errors and make mistakes,” Esteller explained. The cell has a different appearance, far from the normal one, which we call the mesenchyme, which is associated with the emergence of a tumor.
He continued: “When we study colon cancer patients in early stages, the epigenetic defect (TYW2) and the loss of the” Y “nucleotide are associated with those tumors, which despite their small size actually leads to a reduced survival of this person.”
To employ the results of the study, Esteller and his research team now want to explore how to restore TYW2 gene activity and restore the “Y” component necessary to close the cycle of this story that began in 1975, at the dawn of modern molecular biology.