Vaccines go through complex manufacturing stages and multiple experiments before health organizations and agencies approve them to be presented to the public. According to the New York Times, researchers are currently testing 40 vaccines in human clinical trials, and at least 92 vaccines in the preclinical trial phase are under active investigation on animals. But what are the stages of developing a Coronavirus vaccine?
Stages of vaccines and their manufacture
Preclinical trials: Scientists test a new vaccine on cells and then give it to animals such as mice or monkeys to see if it produces an immune response and currently there are 92 vaccines in preclinical trials in active development. Phase 1 Safety Trials: Scientists give the vaccine to a small number of people to test Safety and dosage as well to ensure that it stimulates the immune system.
The second phase of extended experiments: Scientists give the vaccine to hundreds of people who have been divided into groups, such as children and the elderly, to see if the vaccine works differently in them. These experiments also test the safety of the vaccine and its ability to stimulate the immune system.
– Phase three trials of efficacy: Scientists give the vaccine to thousands of people and wait to find out how many people are infected, compared to volunteers who received a placebo.These experiments can determine whether the vaccine protects against the Corona virus.
In June, the FDA said that the coronavirus vaccine must protect at least 50% of the vaccinated people for it to be considered effective. Additionally, Phase 3 trials are large enough to reveal evidence of relatively rare side effects that may be effective. It is missed in previous studies.
Early or limited approval: China and Russia approved the vaccines without waiting for the results of the third phase trials. Experts say the rushed process carries serious risks.
-Approval: Regulators in each country review trial results and decide whether or not to approve the vaccine during a pandemic.The vaccine may receive permission for use in emergency situations before obtaining formal approval. Once the vaccine is licensed, researchers continue to monitor the people who receive it to ensure it is safe And effective.
– Compound stages: One way to accelerate vaccine development is to combine the stages of some coronavirus vaccines that are now being tried in phase 1/2, for example, as they are being tested for the first time on hundreds of people. (Note that our tracker would count a combined phase 1/2 trial as stages 1 and 2.)