Learn about the achievements of the three scientists who won the Nobel Prize in Physics 2020


The 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to mathematician Sir Roger Penrose and astronomers Reinhard Ginzel and Andrea Gies, and Professor Penrose, 89, from Oxford University, received half the prestigious award for discovering that black hole formation is a powerful prediction of general relativity, and while Genzel, 68, will participate. Of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, and Professor Geese, 55, of the University of California, Los Angeles, half the prize for discovering a compact, supermassive object at the center of our galaxy.

It is common for many scientists who have worked in related fields to share the award, as happened here with Professor Geese and Professor Genzel, who independently led projects to map the Milky Way’s center..

David Haviland, chair of the Nobel Committee for Physics, said: “This year’s prize-winning discoveries have opened new vistas in the study of compact and supermassive objects.But these strange things still pose many questions that require answers and stimulate future research.”

Why did Roger Penrose win the Nobel Prize?

Sir Roger’s work proved that the general theory of relativity, first proposed by Albert Einstein in 1905, leads directly to the formation of black holes, and his work included studying Einstein’s own work and using it to prove his error, as Einstein did not believe that black holes are real..

But Sir Roger published a paper in 1965 proving that black holes can form, using Einstein’s theory of relativity as a base..

In 1988, he was awarded the lesser known but highly coveted Wolf Prize for his work on General Relativity and Singularities, which he worked on alongside Stephen Hawking..

While Einstein’s general theory of relativity predicts the existence of black holes, Einstein himself did not really believe they exist, and Penrose was the first to mathematically prove, in 1965, that it is a natural result of relativity and not just science fiction..

Olf Danielson, a member of the Nobel Committee, spoke about the tremendous achievement of Sir Roger today in the declaration, and discussed the mathematical predicament that confused all physicists, mathematicians, and astronomers in the early 1960s. At this time, black holes were prized as nearly mythical bodies, speculated. And it only exists on paper, with no one being able to prove its existence or how it was formed. Danielson added: “This is what Roger Penrose did, he understood mathematics, introduced new tools and then he could actually prove that this is a process that you can expect to happen naturally.” That the star collapses and turns into a black hole.

The achievements of Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Gies:

Professors Ginzel and Brief discovered that an invisible, heavy object controls the orbits of stars at the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and although this is still unknown, the supermassive black hole is the only currently known explanation.

Professor Tom McLeish, Professor of Natural Philosophy at York University, said: “Penrose and Ginzel and Brief together showed us that black holes are amazing and wonderful mathematically, and they do exist.”

Gees is the fourth woman to win the Physics Prize, after Mary Curry in 1903, Maria Gobert Mayer in 1963, and Donna Strickland in 2018.

She said in a virtual press conference after the announcement: ‘I hope I can inspire other girls in this field, it is a field with a lot of pleasure, and if you are passionate about science, there is a lot that you can do, we have no idea what is inside a black hole and this is what It makes these things like these strange things. “

The Nobel Committee said black holes “continue to pose many questions that demand answers and stimulate future research.”

Last year’s prize was awarded to Canadian-born cosmologist James Peebles for his theoretical work on the first moments after the Big Bang, and to Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz for their discovery of a planet outside of our solar system.

The famous prize is a gold medal and a cash amount of 10 million Swedish kronor (more than $ 1.1 million / £ 864,200), thanks to a bequest left 124 years ago by the prize’s creator, Alfred Nobel, and the amount was recently increased to cope with inflation.


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