Instructions to avoid infection with Nipah virus .. The secretions of bats and porcupines are the reason for its spread


Newspaper revealed The StarIn December 2015, the World Health Organization issuedWHO List of emerging diseases that are likely to cause severe outbreaks in the near future, and for which there are few or no medical countermeasures.

Pigs are the reason for the spread of the virus
Pigs are the reason for the spread of the virus

The list included Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Lassa fever, Middle East respiratory syndrome, SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), Corona virus, Nipah virus disease, Rift Valley fever, and the tenth disease.

the disease X ““, Represents knowledge that a serious international epidemic could be caused by a pathogen not currently known to cause human disease“، The issue of whether Coronavirus is a disease has been raised X Itself or a harbinger of a more deadly disease in 2021.

The secretions of pigs and bats are the reason for the spread of the Nipah virus
The secretions of pigs and bats are the reason for the spread of the Nipah virus

Recent reports said, it could be the Nipah virus Nipah Is the disease X “Which may be the most deadly, as Malaysia was the first country in the world to face the virus in 1998, and this led to the destruction of the pig breeding industry there, which was then the largest in the world, where about a million pigs were executed..

The bat is the reason
The bat is the reason

The newspaper said, that many people who survived the infection developed serious complications, causing the Nipah virusNiV A severe disease in animals, and can be transmitted from animals to humans, as it can also be spread through contaminated food or directly from person to person.

Clinical features of infection in humans range from no symptoms (asymptomatic) to acute respiratory infection and fatal encephalitis..

Symptoms of Nipah virus ..

The primary symptoms reported were fever, headache, muscle pain (myalgia), vomiting, and sore throat. Signs of encephalitis, such as dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness and other neurological signs, may follow. Some patients may also develop unusual pneumonia and severe respiratory difficulties. In severe cases encephalitis and seizures occur with rapid progression of coma within 24 to 48 hours.

Be careful not to eat fruits that have bites
Be careful not to eat fruits that have bites

Most survivors of acute encephalitis recover, but long-term neurological conditions have been reported, with about 20% of patients remaining with residual complications such as seizures and personality changes, a small number later relapsing or developing late encephalitis.

Nipah virus mortality rate ranges NiV From about 40% to 75%, depending on the patient’s handling capabilities in the hospital.

The site indicated that there are currently no drugs or vaccines for Nipah virus NiVAcute respiratory or neurological complications can be managed with supportive care.

Nipah cases have been reported NiV The primary school near Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia in September 1998, at which time pig farmers sold their pigs and transported them from Perak..

The bat is the first suspect in the Nipah virus
The bat is the first suspect in the Nipah virus

By the end of 1998, more cases were reported in other parts of Malaysia.

In March 1999, Dr Chua Cao Ping, a graduate student in virology, isolated the Nipah virus NiV From a village resident Nipah River Who was treating at University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC).

According to a research paper published in 2003 in the journal Journal of Clinical Virology In the end, the outbreak caused 283 cases and 109 deaths, a death rate of 38.5%..

An outbreak (11 cases, one death) was also reported in Singapore among slaughterhouse workers in March 1999, since then, there have been annual outbreaks in Bangladesh starting in 2001, as well as cases in eastern India. Most of the human infections in Malaysia resulted from Unprotected exposure to diseased pig secretions or contaminated tissues, however, subsequent outbreaks in Bangladesh and India were most likely due to consumption of fruit or fruit products from infected fruit bats..

The bat is the cause of transmission of viruses to humans
The bat is the cause of transmission of viruses to humans

The newspaper added, that these bats were found, in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, Ghana and Madagascar, and the transmission of infection from one person to another between family members and caregivers of the infected was reported through close contact with their secretions and secretions..

Nipah virus has been reported NiV In Bangladesh and India also in healthcare settings due to relocation

Learn about the animals that the Nipah virus infects.

By providing care, an outbreak has been reported Nipah virus In pets such as pigs, horses, goats, sheep, cats and dogs, an infected pig can be asymptomatic, but some have fever, difficulty breathing, and neurological symptoms such as shivering and muscle cramps, the death rate in pigs is usually low, with the exception of small pigs.

Prevention of Nipah virus infection ..

Nipah prevention fallsNiV In pets within the jurisdiction of veterinary authorities, with the help of the Ministry of Health, an animal or wildlife health surveillance system is vital in providing early warning.

Preventing infection in humans requires increased awareness of risk factors and reduced exposure to infected animals.

Reducing the spread of bats to humans may reduce bats’ access to plants, foods, and other fresh fruits that humans consume.

Food and fruits should be washed and peeled thoroughly before eating and those with bite marks should be discarded. Protective caps may also be useful for fruits and plants used for human consumption..

Hospital spread of the virus (acquired from healthcare) to healthcare personnel can be minimized by ensuring proper hand washing and use of personal protective equipment. (PPE) And isolate the sick.

In the 2019 review of the Nipah virus NiV In the Journal of Infection and Public Health, the authors concluded that environmental factors played a vital role in the spread of animal diseases to humans such as climate changes due to factors such as drought, or floods, deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization, on a large scale that leads to hunger, decreased immunity, and increased viral load. In the bodies of animals, with the spread of bat secretions, thus injuring the fruit, animals or humans who interact with it.

Many of these factors are applicable in Malaysia.


Although there has been no outbreak of Nipah virus NiV It has been in Malaysia for decades, but it can be guaranteed not to happen again.

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