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The title of the article may seem as if it was a kind of echoing historically known axioms for thousands of years, but the truth is that Ethiopia does not believe this at all, and the most dangerous is that it confirms again and again that this is not the case. Moreover, Ethiopia surrounds this denial with a huge amount of lies, which surround the obvious with the noise that other countries or international political groups use in dealing with the issue, claiming that this represents justice, impartiality, objectivity, and consideration of the interests of all parties. What Ethiopia says about its poverty – which came about using Egypt and Sudan for the waters of the Nile, or saying that the reliance of Cairo and Khartoum on the 1902 and 1929 agreements is based on “colonial” agreements – violates all the rules on which international relations were based, on which the Organization of African Unity previously relied and the African Union now , And the borders of the Ethiopian state itself in the past and present. Saying that Egypt was never responsible for the poverty of Ethiopia – nor was it a pressure on Ethiopia, which has always been an independent country for two thousand years, and whose lands were occupied only by Italy during the period from 1936 to 1941 – is much lost in arguments exploited by third parties To research the origins of political arguments or the historical origins of the facts, or to delve into the explanation of the legal rules of the issue. The clear truth, which cannot be escaped from, is that the Nile River is an international river, and that was since the formation of the planet Earth was completed, when it passed through the lands of peoples, tribes and nations, and in the modern era, countries. Based on this axiom and truth, no country has the right to control the sources of the river, nor to undertake projects that hinder the flow of water to other countries. In the modern era, there is an important thing that comes with the “international river”, which is that there is always a great opportunity for cooperation that gives a lot to the countries located on its banks from source to downstream..
The fact is that the world knew the idea of international rivers since 2500 BC, and it was about the exploitation of water in the Tigris River, and since the year 805 AD there have been 3600 international agreements related to the distribution and use of water between the participating parties that contain a river or lake in which more than one state or people participate. Between 1820 and 2007, 450 international agreements on rivers were signed, 150 of which were signed during the last 50 years. Currently, there are 145 countries in the world that belong to a river basin that is subject to regulation through agreements and treaties. The matter is not new then, and this long history of treaties and agreements has not only set a history for the international law of rivers, but also created historical rights for the countries and political entities participating in the rationalization of rules for relations between states and their cooperation even in times of wars and conflicts. For example, the Mekong River Basin, which includes the countries of Thailand, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, is regulated by the Mekong River Authority. The Mekong River CommissionAccording to the rules on shared rivers, the upstream countries did not claim sovereign rights to control water towards the downstream countries, and this continued without veto during the Vietnam War. There is a similar body related to the “Indus” river that regulates water relations between India and Pakistan The Indus Water Commission. In 1955, understandings were made between Jordan and Israel to deal jointly with the waters of the Jordan River despite the state of war at the time. Ten European countries – Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova and Ukraine – participate in the riverbed of the Danube, according to a network of agreements that regulate navigation and drinking water without discrimination between the upstream countries on the Alps and the downstream countries on the Caspian Sea. And all this is regulated by the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River or The International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR). The same applies to the Amazon River, where since 1960 there has been an economic exploitation organization for water, forestry and agriculture, and in which Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela and Bolivia participate..
In all these treaties and agreements, the countries located on the common rivers and lakes had “historical rights,” no difference in this between the source countries, the countries of passage and the downstream countries. Sun, wind and other phenomena of nature. Hence, Egyptian diplomacy and strategy should be the cornerstone in dealing with the issue.