The most important 10 wonderful archaeological discoveries in 2021!


The oldest map in Europe, the “Lost Golden City” in Egypt and the gigantic geoglyph in India, which may be the largest in the world, are among some of the important archaeological discoveries reported in 2021.

Despite all the problems associated with the ongoing “Covid-19”, scientists have made many discoveries, as the “Live Science” website reveals some of the best history and archeology stories for 2021.

Huge geoglyph in India

A gigantic geoglyph, possibly the largest in the world, was found in the Thar Desert in India, covering an area of ​​about 51 acres (20.8 hectares) near Indias border with Pakistan. It consists of several spirals and a snake line that moves back and forth.

The history of the geoglyph is estimated to be around 150 years, but its purpose is unclear. It is difficult to see geoglyphs from Earth, and was first discovered by a team of scientists who were analyzing the landscape using Google Earth.

Lost Golden City

Archaeologists have discovered the “Lost Golden City” near Luxor (Ancient Thebes) in Egypt. The city was known as the “Rise of the Aten”, as it was founded by the pharaoh Amenhotep III, who ruled between 1391 and 1353 BC. The city contains many houses, administrative buildings, a large bakery, a brick production area, and many burials. Historical documents indicate that Amenhotep III had three royal palaces in the city, and archaeological excavations are still underway.

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The city’s existence was known from historical records, but it was not discovered until this year. “Many foreign missions searched for this city and never found it,” Zahi Hawass, a former Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs and an archaeologist who led the excavations in the Golden City, said in a statement.

– Crucifixion of the Romans

Archaeologists found the body of a crucifixion when he was between 25 and 35 years old, in Cambridgeshire, UK. A nail was found driven into at least one of his heel bones, and also during the crucifixion his hands were bound with a cross.

Scientists found that his leg bones were thin, meaning he was likely to have been shackled to a wall for a long time before he was crucified. The burial date goes back to the third or fourth century, and the man may have been a slave. Very few examples of crucifixion from the Roman Empire were found in archaeological excavations.

– The oldest map in Europe

Researchers have found that a series of inscriptions on a 4,000-year-old stone tablet in France is actually the oldest map in Europe. The slab contains a series of lines representing the Odette River and its surrounding valley in western France – measuring about 18.6 miles by 13 miles (30 kilometers by 21 kilometers), the researchers said.

The stone slab was found already in 1900. A recent study of the inscriptions, which used photogrammetry to create a highly detailed three-dimensional image of the slab, revealed that the inscriptions constitute a map. It may have been used by a prince or king to indicate the area they ruled.

Old lovers hug

About 1,500 years ago, a married couple was buried together in an intimate embrace. When archaeologists found their remains, their embrace was still intact despite the passage of time.

“This is the first couple found to be hugging, like this, anywhere,” study lead author Qian Wang, associate professor in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at Texas A&M College of Dentistry, told Live Science in an email. And anytime in China.

The man was between 29 and 35 years old, and had some injuries, including a broken arm and a missing finger on his right hand. The woman was between 35-40 years old and had few cavities but no injuries. Researchers speculate that after the man’s death, the woman may have killed herself to facilitate her burial in an amazing embrace.

The oldest pet cemetery in the world

A 2,000-year-old pet cemetery that may be the oldest known example in the world has been discovered in Berenice, a port on Egypt’s Red Sea coast. It appears that the animals buried in this cemetery died of natural causes and were carefully treated. At other sites in Egypt with animal burials, animals are often sacrificed.

In the pet cemetery, archaeologists found a variety of animals, including a large dog wrapped in a rug of palm leaves. It also includes dogs and cats that were very old when they died and may have required the help of their owners to eat. “Our finding shows that we humans are in dire need of animal companionship,” said lead researcher Marta Osipinska, an animal archaeologist at the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw.

– 11,000 year old display

A 11,000-year-old prehistoric site in Turkey, now called Karahantepe, was used for a prehistoric parade that saw people walking through a building containing rod-shaped pillars and a carving of a human head. “All the columns are erected and shaped like a rod. The building is part of a larger complex,” Nejmi Karol, professor of prehistoric archeology at Istanbul University, wrote in a research paper published in Turk Arkeoloji ve Etnografya Dergisi. Excavations began at the site in 2019 and are still ongoing.

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The site’s history dates back to a time similar to Gobekli Tepe, another archaeological site with large buildings and carvings of animals and human heads. Both sites are among the oldest known archaeological sites built by people.

The oldest trace of war

Archaeologists have said that a 4,300-year-old tomb in Syria, at the site of Tell Banat, may be the oldest known war monument in the world. It contains the bodies of at least 30 warriors with horses. Ancient Mesopotamian inscriptions mention how the bodies of war dead were stacked in a highly organized structure.

Archaeologists wrote that modern-day people living in the area call the mound a “white monument”, because the gypsum causes it to shine in sunlight. Ann Porter, professor of ancient Near and Middle Eastern civilizations at the University of Toronto and one of the study’s researchers, said in a statement that the discovery shows that “the ancients honored those killed in battle as we do.”

– Dragon Man

Scientists in China have reported the discovery of a new human species called . Homo longi Which means “Dragon Man”. It is known from a skull found in 1933 but hidden in a well during the Japanese occupation of China, where it remained for 85 years until it was rediscovered and studied.

Studies suggest that the Dragon Man may be the closest known species related to Homo sapiens. Scientists have found that it is not clear when the Dragon Man first appeared and when it became extinct, but the skull itself dates back to between 309,000 and 138,000 years ago.

Oldest ghost drawing

A museum curator has identified a 3,500-year-old Babylonian tablet inscription as the oldest known depiction of a male ghost with a beard, looking angry as a woman leads him by rope to the underworld.

The tablet inscription contains a spell intended to expel the ghost. The spell transmits the ghost to a small statue and calls on the sun god Shamash to help the ghost cross into the afterlife. And the last line of the ritual warns, “Don’t look behind you.”

The tablet inscription is in the British Museum, where it was acquired in the 19th century, but the ghost was only recently observed.

Source: Live Science

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